Looking for Employment Chapter notes of Indian Economic Development Book Class 12 CBSE Board.
We will be discussing the Employment chapter in short notes here.
Following are the topics
- What is Economic Activities
- Who is Worker
- What is Labour Force
- Labour Force Participation Rate
- What is WorkForce
- Number of Unemployed People
- Worker-Population Ratio
- What is Employment
- What is Self-Employment
- What is Wage Employment
- Who are Regular Workers
- Who are Casual Workers
- Jobless Growth
- Casualisation of Workforce
- Informalisation of Workforce
- Formal and Organised Sector
- Informal or Unorganised Sector
Detailed Employment Chapter Notes of Indian Economic Development Book class 12
Let’s First discuss what this chapter is all about.
See, the main concern of every individual is to earn the livelihood for himself and his family. It is the duty of the government to create an economic infrastructure where all citizens who want to work get employment and become able to earn their living.
So the core thought of this chapter is to understand what Employment is all about and its related terms.
What are the government policies and programs to facilitate employment in the country?
And at last, we will study the measures to alleviate and eradicate unemployment.
What is Economic Activities
Those Activities which contribute to the gross national product are called economic activites.
Who is Worker
A worker is an individual, who is involved in some economic activity, to earn a living.Sandeep Garg
All those who are engaged in economic activities, in whatever capacity high or low, are workers.NCERT
Who are inclued or considered as Worker
Following are included in workers
1. workers include all those who help the main workers in main activities
2. The persons who are paid by an employer for their work are workers.
3. Those who are self-employed are also workers.
4. Even if some of them temporarily abstain from work due to illness, injury, or other physical disability, bad weather, festivals, social or religious functions are also workers.
What are the numbers of people actively engaged in various economic activities during 2011-12.
During 2011-12, there had been about a 473 million-strong workforce. About three fourth of this 473 million are rural workers and the rest 1/4th are urban.
About 70 percent of the workers are men and 30 percent are women.
Note:- Men and Women include child labourers of respective sexes
Women workers account for one-third of the rural workforce whereas in urban areas, they are just one-fifth of the workforce.
Note:- The women who carry out works like cooking, fetching water, and fuelwood and participate in farm labour. These women are not paid in cash or in the form of grains. For this reason, these women are not considered workers.
What is Worker-Population Ratio?
The worker Population Ratio is calculated by dividing the total number of workers in India by the population in India and multiplying it by 100.
The worker Population ratio is an indicator that is used for analyzing the employment situation in the country.
This ratio is useful in knowing the proportion of the population that is actively contributing to the production of goods and services of a country.
A higher ratio indicates that a high proportion of its population is involved in economic activities.
What is the date of worker population in India in 2017-18.
What is Employment
Employment is an activity that enables a person to earn means of living.
What are types of Employment
There are following are types of Employment
1. Self Employment
An arrangement in which a worker uses his own resources to make a living is known as self-employment. For example, shopkeepers, traders, businessmen, etc.
2. Wage Employment
An arrangement in which a worker sells his labour and earns wages in return is known as wage employment.
Wage employment is further divided into two types:
Regular Salaried Workers:- When a worker is engaged by someone or by an enterprise and is paid wages on a regular basis, then such worker is known as regular salaried employees. For example, Professors, Teachers, Lawyers, etc.
Casual Workers:- The workers who are casually engaged and, in return, get remuneration for the work done, are termed, casual workers.
What is the Data of Distribution of Workforce by Industry in 2017-18
What is Jobless Growth?
Jobless growth refers to a situation when the economy is able to produce more goods and services without a proportionate increase in employment opportunities.
What is the Casualisation of the workforce?
The process of moving from self-employment and regular salaried employment to casual wage work is known as the casualization of the workforce.
What is Informalisation of Workforce?
It refers to a situation whereby the proportion of the workforce in the informal sector to total workforce increases.
What is the Formal or Organised Sector?
All the public enterprises and Private Establishments which employ 10 or more hired workers are called formal sector establishments.
What is Informal or Unorganised Sector?
It includes all those private enterprises which hire less than 10 workers.
What is Unemployment?
It refers to a situation in which people are willing and able to work at the existing wage rate, but do not get work.
What are the types of Unemployment in India?
Following are the types of unemployment found in India.
Disguised Unemployment:- It is a situation where in the number of workers engaged in a work is more than actually/optimally required.
Seasonal Unemployment:- It refers to the unemployment that occurs at certain seasons of the year.
Open Unemployment:- It refers to that economic phenomenon in which persons are able and willing to work at the prevailing wage rate, but fail to get work.
What are the Causes of Unemployment?
Following are the important causes of the unemployment problem in India are:
1) Slow Rate of Economic Growth:-
2) Population Explosion:-
3) Underdeveloped Agriculture:-
4) Defective Educational System:-
5) Slow Growth of Industry:-
6) Decline of Cottage and Small Scale Industries:-
7) Faulty Planning:-
8) Inadequate Employment Planning:-
9) Low Capital Formation:-
What are the remedial Measures of Unemployment
Following are the remedial measures that can reduce the unemployment problem in India.
1) Accelerating growth rate of GDP
2) Control of Population Growth
3) Development of Agricultural Sector
4) Encouragement to Small Scale Enterprises
5) Improvements in Infrastructure
6) Special Employment Programs
7) Improvement of Employment Exchanges
8) Creation of Self Employment Opportunities
9) Reform of Educational System and Skill growth
10) Manpower Planning
What are the government Policies and Employment Generation Programs?
Following are the government policies and employment generation programs.
Employment Generation Programs:- Government has also implemented a number of employment generation programs such as
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act – 2005.
Prime Ministers Rozgar Yojana
Swarna Jayanti Shahri Rozgar Yojana