NPO Basic Concepts | NPO Theory class 12 accounts for CBSE Board

Share your love

NPO (Not for Profit Organization) is the first chapter of accountancy paper class 12 CBSE Board. This chapter is of 10 marks and very very important from an examination point of view.

Here, Out discussion would be limited to some Basic NPO theory of class 12 as prescribed in CBSE Board Syllabus.

In this lecture, I will discuss a few basic concepts of NPO such as definition, features (characteristics), and a number of financial statements prepared by not-for-profit-organization.

The best part is, its marks weightage is much more as compared to its syllabus. The chapter is not lengthy and with a little effort and concept gripping, students can secure full 10 marks of this chapter in the board exam.

NPO Theory class 12 accounts for CBSE Board

If you have not subscribed to our Youtube channel for free content here is the link.

Youtube ChannelCommerce School – CBSE

You can also download our Android App:- Commerce School

What is NPO (Not-for-profit-organisation)

Not-for-profit organizations also known as NPO in short, are organization whose main objective is not to earn profit but to serve society and its members without any motive of earning profit out of it.

Definition of NPO as given in TS Grewal Book

Not-for-Profit Organizations, also knows as Non-profit Organizations are set up with the objective to further cultural, educational, health, religious public services to public and/or members, etc. not with the purpose of earning profit.

Book, TS Grewal

Examples of NPO (Not for profit organisation)

  1. Schools
  2. colleges
  3. Public & Charitable Hospitals
  4. literary Societies
  5. Social Welfare Organizations
  6. NGO (Non-Government-Organizations)
  7. Societies for promotion of sports, arts and culture etc.

How NPO organizations raise fund

As NPO organization does not do any trading activities. Mostly all the activities are for welfare of its own members or societies.

So, the fund for these activities come from its own members, trustees and general public in the form of subscriptions, membership fees and donations.

Following are the form of fund raised by NPO

  1. Donation
  2. Subscription
  3. Membership Fee or Entrance Fee
  4. Loans, and Grants (from Government and Institutions)

Characteristics (Features) of Not for Profit Organization


with legal point of view, NPO is a separate entity from its promoters. If any fraud is done by NPO organization, legal action would be taken against organization. No individual legal action is legitimate on any member of it.


The main purpose of NPO organization is to promote religious, educational, cultural and professional objectives through providing services to its own members and general public at large.


It is setup as charitable society or trust. Hence it does not belong it its trustee and members rather belongs to the society it serve.

Profit is not the objective:-

NPO organization never function keeping in mind the profit objective. However, it can carry out few trading activities to fund its requirement. But this profit is termed as surplus in book of accounts. this surplus is used further to fulfill its main objectives and never distributed among members.


NPO organization is managed by group of people called trustee or Managing Committee.


The main source of funds of NPO are subscriptions, donation, entrance and admission fees from its members. further donation from general public and other institutions are also received.

Financial Statements:-

The following financial statements are prepared each year.

  1. Receipts and Payments Accounts
  2. Income and Expenditure Account
  3. Balance Sheet

Difference between Not for Profit Organization and Profit Earning Organization

Here are basic difference between NPO and Business firm

BasisNPOBusiness Firm
PurposeIt is set up to further promote cultural, religious etc. services with no motive to earn profit.Main purpose is to earn profit
Source of FundsThe main source of funds are subscriptions, donations, admissions and entrance fees.funds are raised as capital in proprietor and partnership firm and as share capital in public and Pvt Ltd company.
Financial StatementsReceipts and Payments a/c, Income and expenditure a/c, Balance SheetTrading A/c, Profit & Loss A/c and Balance Sheet
Surplus/ProfitBalance of Income and Expenditure Account is written as surplus or Deficit.Balance of the Profit and Loss account is written as profit or loss.
Distribution of ProfitProfit is not distributed among its membersIts profit is distributed among its members.

Name of Financial Statements Prepared by NPO

NPO organization prepare annual (final) accounts that include:

  1. Receipts and Payments Account
  2. Income and Expenditure Account
  3. Balance Sheet

Further Reading:-

Receipts and Payments account format, features, limitations

Income & Expenditure Account, definition, features, format

1.NPO Basic Concepts and Theory
2.Receipts and Payments account of NPO format, features, meaning
3.Income and expenditure account of NPO format features meaning
4.Difference between income and expenditure account and Profit & Loss A/c
5.Difference between Receipts and Payments account and income and expenditure account
6.Difference between receipts and payments account and cash book
7.Difference between NPO and profit organisation class 12
1.What is Fund Based Accounting in NPO
2.Admission and Entrance fees Accounting Treatment
3.Accounting Treatment of Life Membership Fees in NPO
4.Accounting Treatment of Donation in NPO
5.Accounting Treatment of Legacy in NPO
6.Accounting Treatment of Government Grant in NPO
7.Accounting Treatment of sale of Old News paper in NPO
8.Accounting Treatment of sale of Old Sports Material in NPO
9.Accounting Treatment of Cost of Material Consumed in NPO
10.Accounting treatment of Sale of Assets in NPO
11.Accounting treatment of Subscription in NPO
12.Accounting treatment of Subscription written off in NPO
S.NNPO Chapter Solution
1.TS Grewal NPO Chapter solution 2021-22 Edition
2.DK Goyal NPO Chapter solution 2021-22 Edition
3.SK Sharma NPO Chapter solution 2021-22 Edition
Share your love
Default image
Anurag Pathak

Anurag Pathak is an academic teacher. He has been teaching Accountancy and Economics for CBSE students for the last 18 years. In his guidance, thousands of students have secured good marks in their board exams and legacy is still going on. You can subscribe his youtube channel and can download the Android & ios app for free lectures.

Articles: 2015

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


Ad Blocker Detected!

Our Website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors. Please consider supporting us and remove the AD - Blocker to read this article.