Infrastructure Chapter Notes of IED Class 12 CBSE

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Looking for Infrastructure Chapter notes of Indian Economic Development Book Class 12 CBSE Board.

We will be discussing the Infrastructure chapter in short notes here.

Following are the topics

  1. Meaning of infrastructure
  2. What are types of Infrastructrue
  3. Difference between Economic Infrastructrue and Social Infrastructrue
  4. What is the importance of Infrastructure
  5. State of Infrastrucutre in India
  6. What is Energy
  7. Types of Energy
  8. What is Commercial Energy
  9. What is Non-Commercial Energy
  10. Commercial Energy Vs Non-Commercial Energy
  11. What are the Conventional Sources of Energy
  12. What are the Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
  13. Conventional Vs Non-Conventional Energy
  14. What is the consumption Pattern of Energy in India
  15. What is Power (Electricity)
  16. What are the sources of Power Generation.
  17. What is the Power Generation Capactiy of Various Sources.
  18. What are the Challenges in the power sector.
  19. Power Distribution Case of Delhi
  20. What are the measures to meet the Power Crisis.
  21. What is Health
  22. Important Points about Health and Health Infrastrucutre.
  23. Health Status after independence.

Infrastructure Chapter Short Notes of Indian Economic Development Class 12 CBSE

Following are the topic

What is Infrastrucutre

Infrastructure refers to the support system of economic and social development of a country without which economic growth and social development would only remain to be primitive.

Read More:- What is Infrastructure in economics

What are the types of Infrastructure

infrastructure is broadly classified into two categories?

Economics Infrastructure:- The infrastructure which promotes primarily the economic activities is called ‘economic infrastructure. it includes public utilities such as power, telecommunication, roads, ports, transportation, water supply, sanitation, etc.

Social Infrastructure:- The infrastructure that directly influences the quality of life of the people is called Social infrastructure. It includes facilities concerning health, education, housing and sanitation, and human resource development.

Read More:- What are the Types of Infrastructure

Explain the importance of Infrastructure

Following are the importance of Infrastructure

Improves Quality of Life of the People

The quality of life of the people is improved by the facilities concerning health, education, housing and sanitation, and environment, etc., available in the country. These enable the people to avail better opportunities of employment and raise their standard of living.

Raise Productivity

Infrastructural facilities help in raising productivity. Social infrastructure improves the quality of human resources, i.e. workers and producers. Good health and education help the human resource in acquiring better skills and raise their efficiency. Economic infrastructure, in the form of power, transport, telecommunication, etc. creates conditions suitable for carrying out economic activities. Therefore, the better quality of life and better economic environment together help in raising productivity and bring down costs of production.

Expansion of Trade and Industry

Better roads, continuous power supply, countrywide communication system, etc. all lead to the free movement of capital goods and people throughout the country and outside the country. It helps markets to spread over the country and the world and come closer to each other.

This in turn expands trade. It is a support system for large-scale production.

Read More:- What is the Importance of Infrastructure

Health Infrastrucuture

Health is the key component of Social Infrastructure.

Let’s first understand what is Health

What do you mean by Health

Health is a state of an individual where he/she is physically and mentally sound. It does not simply mean the absence of disease.

Definition of Health

Health means a sound physical and mental state of the individual. It does not simply mean absence of disease.

In the words of WHO, ‘Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.’

Important points about Health and Health Infrastructure.

  • It is a yardstick of one’s well being.
  • Health is the holistic process related to the overall growth and developent of the nation.
  • Good Health increases in overall efficiency to handle difficult tasks.
  • It increases in productivity of labour, and increase in mental abilities.

What are the parameters to assess Health status in a country?

Generally, scholars assess people’s health by taking into account indicators such as

  • Infant Mortality rate
  • Maternal Mortality rates
  • Life Expectancy and Nutrition levels
  • Incidence of Communicable and Non-Communicable diseases.

What Health Infrastructure include

Health infrastructure includes the following

  • hospitals,
  • doctors,
  • nurses and other para-medical professionals,
  • Beds,
  • Equipment required in hospitals,
  • the well developed pharmaceutical industry,

Importance of Health Infrastructure in India

A goods health infrastructure ensures a country of healthy manpower for the production
of goods and services.

The State of Health Infrastructure in India

In recent times, scholars argue that people are entitled to health care facilities. It is the responsibility of the government to ensure the right to healthy living.

It is also true that the mere presence of health infrastructure is not sufficient to have healthy people.

The same should be accessible to all people.

Since, the initial stages of planned development, policymakers envisaged that no individual should fail to secure medical care, curative and preventive, because of the inability to pay for it.

But are we able to achieve this vision?

Let’s discuss the progress and state of health infrastructure in India.

The government has the constitutional obligation to guide and regulate all health-related issues, such as

medical education, adulteration of food, drugs, and poisons, the medical profession, vital statistics, mental deficiency, and lunacy.

The Union Government evolves broad policies and plans through the Central Council of Health and Family Welfare.

It collects information and renders financial and technical assistance to State Governments, Union Territories, and other bodies
for the implementation of important health programs in the country.

Over the year, India has built a vast health infrastructure and manpower at different levels.

At Village Level, a variety of hospitals, technically known as Primary Health Centres (PHCs) have been set up by the government.

India also has a large number of hospitals run by voluntary agencies and the private sector.

These Hospitals are manned by professionals and Para-medical Professionals trained in medical, pharmacy, and nursing colleges.

Public Health Infrastructure growth in India from 1951-2017

  • Since Independence, there has been a significant expansion in the physical provision of health services.
  • The number of government hospitals and dispensaries together increased from 9,300 to 53,800
  • Hospitals Beds increased from 1.2 to 7.1 Lakhs.
  • Nursing Personnel increased from 18,000 to 30 Lakh
  • Allopathic doctors increased from 62,000 to 11.5 lakhs.

The Expansion of health infrastructure has resulted in the eradication of smallpox, guinea, worms and the near eradication of polio and leprosy.

Private Sector Health Infrastructure

In recent times, as compared to the public health sector, the private health sector has grown by leaps and bounds.

Following are the statistics of private health infrastructure in India.

  • More than 70 percent of the hospitals in India are run by the private sector. They control nearly two-fifth of the beds available in the hospitals.
  • Nearly 60 percent of dispensaries are run by the same private sector. They provide healthcare for 80 percent of outpatients and 46 percent of inpatients.
  • The private sector has been playing a dominant role in medical education, training, medical technology and diagnostics, manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, hospital construction, and provision of medical services.
  • In 2001-02, there were more than 13 lakh medical enterprises employing 22 lakh people.
  • More than 80 percent of them are single person owned and operated by one person occasionally employing a hired worker.
  • Since 1990, owing to liberalisation measures, many non-resident Indians and Industrial and pharmaceutical companies have set up state-of-the-art super specialty hospitals to attract India’s rich and medical tourists.

Health System In India

India’s Health infrastructure and Health care is made up of a three-tier system

1. Primary Health care

It includes education concerning prevailing health problems and methods of identifying, preventing, and controlling them.

promotion of food supply and proper nutrition and adequate supply of water and basic sanitation.

Maternal and child health care.

Immunization against major infectious diseases and injuries.

Promotion of mental health and provision of drugs.

Auxiliary Nursing Midwife (ANM) is the first person who provides primary healthcare in rural areas.

In order to provide primary health care, hospitals have been set up in villages and small towns which are generally manned by a single doctor, a nurse, and a limited quantity of medicines. They are known as Primary Health Centers (CHC) and sub-center.

When the condition of a patient is not managed by PHCs, they are referred to secondary or tertiary hospitals.

2. Secondary Health care

The Hospitals which have better facilities for surgery, X-ray, Electro cardio Gram (ECG) are called secondary health care institutions.

They function both as a primary health care providers and also provide better healthcare facilities.

They are mostly located in district headquarters and in big towns.

3. Tertiary Health care

All those hospitals which have advanced level equipment and medicines and undertake all the complicated health problems, which could not be managed by primary and secondary hospitals, come under the tertiary sector.

The tertiary sector also includes many premier institutes which not only impart quality medical education and conduct research but also provide
specialised health care.

For example

All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi

Post Graduate Institute, Chandigarh

Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry

National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore

All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata

What is Medical Tourism

Medical tourism refers to the foreigners flocking to India for medical treatments.

As India’s health services combine the latest medical technologies with qualified professionals and are cheaper for foreigners as compared to
costs of similar healthcare services in their own countries.

currently, in India, foreigners, coming to India for varieties of medical treatments such as surgeries, liver transplants, dental, and even cosmetic
care.

In 2016, as many as 2,01,000 foreigners visited India for medical treatment. And the figure is likely to increase by 15 percent each year.

Experts predict that by 2020 India could earn more than 500 billion rupees a year through such medical tourism.

What is Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM)

Indian Systems of Medicine consists of Six Systems

  • Ayurveda
  • Yoga
  • Unani
  • Siddha
  • Naturopathy
  • Homeopathy (Ayush)

At present, there are 4,095 AYUSH hospitals and 27,951 dispensaries, and as many as 8 lakh registered practitioners in India.

ISMs have huge potential and can solve a large part of our healthcare problems because they are effective safe and inexpensive.

But little has been done to set up a framework to standardise education or to promote research.

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Anurag Pathak

Anurag Pathak is an academic teacher. He has been teaching Accountancy and Economics for CBSE students for the last 18 years. In his guidance, thousands of students have secured good marks in their board exams and legacy is still going on. You can subscribe his youtube channel and can download the Android & ios app for free lectures.

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