Nominal GDP and Real GDP class 12 CBSE Board

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Nominal GDP and Real GDP is the important topic of national income chapter of Macroeconomics class 12 CBSE Board. It is a short topic and in this lecture we will discuss it in detail covering its all aspects.

The concept of real and nominal GDP arises with the question whether calculation of GDP indicates the actual welfare of the society or not.

What is Nominal GDP?

GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is the money value of all goods and services produced by normal resident within the domestic territory of a country in a year. But when money value is calculated at the current prices of an accounting year it is called Nominal GDP.

Different text books has given the definition of of Nominal GDP. Let’s see how they differ. You can learn any one out of them that’s look easy to you.

It also refers to GDP at current Prices.

Definition of Nominal GDP as given in TR Jain Book

It is the Market value of the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of a country during an accounting year, as estimated using the current year prices.

Definition of Nominal GDP as given in Sandeep Garg Book

It is the money value of final goods and services produced by normal residents of a country in a year, measured at the prices of the current year.

Definition of Nominal GDP as given in S.K Aggarwal Book

When value of the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of a country expressed in terms of current market value. It is called Nominal GDP.

Other Names of Nominal GDP

  1. GDP at current prices.
  2. Nominal National Income

Formula of Nominal GDP

Nominal GDP = quantity of final goods and services produced during an accounting year * Prices prevailing during the accounting year.

Nominal GDP = Q * P

Example of Nominal GDP

Let’s assume in India during 2020-21 10 chairs, 20 grocery products, and 30 Machinery are produced. The current market prices of groceries are chair ₹50 per piece, grocery ₹100 per piece, machinery ₹70 per piece.

Hence

Nominal GDP = 10 * 50 + 20 * 100 + 30 * 70 = ₹500 + ₹2000 + ₹2100 = ₹4600

What is Real GDP?

When GDP is calculated eliminating the effect of inflation it is called Real GDP. It is calculated at the price of the Base year.

Definition of Real GDP as given in TR Jain Book.

It is the market value of the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of a country during an accounting year, as estimated using the base year prices.

Definition of Real GDP as given in Sandeep Garg Book.

It is the money value of final goods and services produced by normal residents of a country in a year, measured at base year price.

Other names of Real GDP

  1. GDP at constant prices.
  2. Real National Income
  3. Real Domestic Income

Formula of Real GDP

In order to calculate Real GDP, a base year is decided that is free from price fluctuation. So far India’s base year 2011-12. But government would change it to 2017-18. Many economists advising 2020-21 as the base year.

Example of Real GDP

For example there are 100 units goods and services are prodduced in 2020-21. Price prevailing in the same year are Rs. 10 per unit. But the price in 2011-12 was Rs 8 per unit.

Hence Real GDP would be 100 * 8 = ₹800

Difference between Nominal GDP and Real GDP

BasisNominal GDPReal GDP
MeaningIt refers to money value of final goods and services produced by normal residents of a country in year, measured at current priceIt is the money value of final goods and services produced by normal residents of a country in a year, measured at base year price.
Indicates Economic growthit is not a good indicator of economic growth It better indicates the economic growth.
Causes of changeIt changes when both price and quantity changes or any one.It only changes when only quantity changes.
ComparisonIt is not a good tool to compare the domestic income of different year.It is a good tool.
CalculationQuantity * current priceQuantity * Base year price
Alternative NameDomestic income at current priceDomestic income at constant price.

Note:- If Difference between nominal and real national income is asked change domestic to national.

What is GDP deflator?

Define GDP deflator

It refers to the ratio between GDP at current prices and GDP at constant prices. It is expressed as under:

Formula of GDP deflator

GDP Deflator = GDP at current prices/GDP at Constant prices * 100

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